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  • Recycling Ujamaa Philosophy in Tanzania: A Critical Discourse Analysis of John Pombe Magufuli’s Speeches

    Thomas Ndaluka

    Chapter from the book: Dokman F. & Kankindi A. 2023. Beyond the Spirit of Bandung: Philosophies of National Unity: Secular or Religious?.


    This chapter examines the trends and applicability of Ujamaa philosophy that were regarded as secular after the late Mwalimu Julius Nyerere’s leadership regime (1961-1985). The chapter tries to answer the following questions: is Ujamaa still alive and used to unite the Tanzanians? And Ujamaa philosophy is a lesson that will never be erased in Tanzanians? Using critical discourse analysis, this paper examines speeches and remarks by the late Magufuli at different locations, and consequently compared with practices conducted from 2015–2020, when Magufuli was in office as the 5th President of the United Republic of Tanzania. These speeches were collected from government records available at the Parliament and President’s offices. The chapter suggests that there were similarities between the late Magufuli’s speeches and remarks and the Ujamaa philosophy/ideology/policy, as reflected in both the adoption and adaption of the Ujamaa principles and unification of citizens as a nation. Such principles were evident in the context of the government emphasis on the control over major means of production versus the private sector, control of the media, stress on public servants’ professionalism and ethical conducts, integrity regarding the use of public funds and properties, development through cooperative societies and emphasis on self-reliance and national unity. It can be argued that the return of socialist principles was observed through changes in macro-economic policies in Tanzania. However, contrary to Nyerere’s Ujamaa philosophy, which emphasized the separation of religion and state, Magufuli’s government embraced the mix of the state and religion. This time the country was united to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.

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    How to cite this chapter
    Ndaluka, T. 2023. Recycling Ujamaa Philosophy in Tanzania: A Critical Discourse Analysis of John Pombe Magufuli’s Speeches. In: Dokman F. & Kankindi A (eds.), Beyond the Spirit of Bandung. Nijmegen: Radboud University Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.54195/FLRI3273_CH05

    This chapter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives 4.0 license. Copyright is retained by the author(s)

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    Additional Information

    Published on Nov. 30, 2023


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